1. Organize activities where students have to work in pairs or groups of 3. Don’t form groups of more than 3 students, since some of them might not get a chance to speak at all. Change the pairs, so that students don’t get used to/bored with each other. If there are “talkative” and “silent” students, pair the letter with each other; in this way they will be forced to talk anyway.
• Talking to a partner is an effective way of developing speaking skills and learning how to express your opinions;
• working in pairs may be more stimulating than working alone.
2. Ask a student (each time a new one) to read the instructions to the exercise aloud.
• It is a good opportunity for you to check the correct pronunciation and intonation of the student.
• Other students are likely to listen more attentively to their peer reading the instructions rather than to you doing it.
• A student may remember or understand the instructions better when reading aloud.
3. Regularly check students’ understanding by asking “Is it clear?”. If the answer is negative, ask if anybody of the students can explain the material/word/rule. If nobody can do it, give your own explanation supported by examples. Do it as many times as it takes to make it clear. Don’t ask “Do you understand” because it implies the students are stupid and most of them are unlikely to admit to being so.
• Checking the understanding is necessary for students not merely doing exercise by guessing the right answers or by doing constant mistakes.
• If the student feels he/she is the only one who doesn’t get the material, he/she will most probably remain silent.
4. Teach the correct pronunciation by pronouncing the word first yourself, then asking the whole class do it all together several times, then pronouncing it yourself one more time and then making each student do it separately. You can practice the same thing with the correct intonation.
• Pronouncing the words correctly is very important in the foreign language studying.
• Such exercises can be fillers between some more complicated ones, which need much concentration.
5. Encourage students to guess answers in blank filling when there is a multiple choice of variants or do their best guess when there are no variants given.
• Most students know much more than they think, they possess a so-called “passive knowledge”, which they should apply in practice.
• The process of guessing involves paying attention to the context surrounding of the missing word it is usually easy to guess at least a part of speech needed and the shade of meaning which will be appropriate.